occupationsOther Professional Occupations in Health Diagnosing and Treating   (NOC: 3123)

This unit group includes health professionals who diagnose and treat the diseases and injuries of patients and who are not elsewhere classified. This includes doctors of podiatric medicine, chiropodists and podiatrists, naturopaths, orthoptists and osteopaths. They work in private practices, clinics and hospitals.

Alternate titles for this trade may include: chiropodist, doctor of osteopathy, doctor of podiatric medicine (D.P.M.), foot specialist, naturopath, naturopathic doctor (ND), orthoptist, osteopath, osteopathic physician, podiatrist

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The following are some of the employment requirements for this trade:

  • Doctors of podiatric medicine (D.P.M.) A four-year doctoral degree program in podiatric medicine available in the United States, normally following completion of a bachelor's degree program, is required. A one-year medical residency is required i

Pattern of Interests   |   Skill Requirements


Pattern of Interests

The code determined by the results of your answers to the Interest Inventory questionnaire. Each possibility has a 3 letter variation that assesses the degree and range of your interests along Directive, Innovative, Methodical, Objective, and Social criteria variables.

Directive

Directive interest in mentoring patients by prescribing treatments and diets that include natural foods and herbs, corrective exercises and other natural methods of healing

Innovative

Innovative interest in co-ordinating information obtained by observing, interviewing and examining patients to diagnose and treat disorders and illnesses with natural methods of healing such as herbal medicines, biochemical therapy, nutritional therapy, homeopathy and psychological therapy

Methodical

Methodical interest in operating equipment to perform acupuncture and hydrotherapy; and in performing acupressure, reflexology and spinal manipulation

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Skill Requirements

Below are Essential Skill categories and how they correspond to this occupation. This section will help you identify occupations where you have a good chance of succeeding. It can also help you see which Skills you may need to improve. Click on the Summary Analysis link above to view a complete analysis of how your Skills measure up to this occupation. This feature is only available for those Users that are logged in and have completed the self assessment component.

The most important Essential Skills for this trade are:

  • Oral Communication
  • Critical Thinking
  • Continuous Learning


1. 

Reading Text

Desired Skill Level Range: 1-4
  Other Professional Occupations in Health Diagnosing and Treating
  • Read short explanations and instructions on product labels. for example, naturopathic doctors read directions for use and warnings on the labels of vitamins, herbal supplements and other natural products. (1)
  • Read text entries in forms. for example, they may read about patients' primary health concerns in intake forms. (2)
  • Read e-mail and letters from colleagues, co-workers, patients and suppliers. for example, they may read letters from other health care professionals which describe the symptoms of referred patients. they may read e-mail from patients who ask questions about their treatments. they may also read e-mail messages from suppliers which confirm the availability of requested materials and equipment. (2)
  • Read trade magazines, brochures and professional associations' newsletters to stay abreast of technological advances, legislative changes and other matters affecting their practices. for example, an orthoptist may read a professional association's bulletin to learn about changes to continuing education and certification requirements. a naturopath may read a training company's brochure to find out about upcoming seminars on biotherapeutic drainage, gemnotherapy and single remedies. a podiatrist may read an article in podiatry today to learn about a new tri-laminate dressing to lower the risk of infection following subcutaneous soft-tissue foot surgery. (3)
  • Read textbooks and academic journals to learn about the results of experimental treatment procedures and expand their knowledge of diseases, deformities, injuries and disorders. for example, an orthoptist may read a textbook about the diagnosis and treatment of binocular vision disorders in children and adults. an osteopath may read an article in the journal of the american osteopathic association about the progressive inhibition of neuromuscular structures technique. a doctor of podiatric medicine may read an article in the journal of the american podiatric medical association about the diagnosis and treatment of nerve entrapment syndromes. (4)
 

2. 

Document Use

Desired Skill Level Range: 1-3
  Other Professional Occupations in Health Diagnosing and Treating
  • Scan product labels for various data. for example, naturopaths may scan labels on vitamins, herbal supplements and other natural products to locate data on ingredients, concentrations and expiry dates. doctors of podiatric medicine may scan labels on patients' drugs for data on products' names, prescribing doctors' names, dosages and renewals. (1)
  • Locate data in lists, tables and schedules. for example, an osteopath may read a bibliography at the end of a journal article to identify other articles relevant to systemic dysfunctions and the treatment of pneumonia. a podiatrist may read the daily operating room schedule at a hospital to locate data on the day, time and location of a scheduled foot surgery and the names of assistants. a naturopath may read an eating schedule completed by a patient to locate data on meal times, foods eaten and beverages drank. (2)
  • Enter data into tables and schedules. for example, a doctor of podiatric medicine may enter details of treatments rendered, time spent and fees charged into a summary table so that a patient's account and medical record can be updated. an orthoptist may enter eye test results into a table to be included in a patient's medical record. an osteopath may enter the dates and times of upcoming appointments into a patient's treatment schedule. (2)
  • Interpret graphs in textbooks, trade publications and academic journals to learn about the effectiveness of techniques used in the treatment of diseases, deformities, injuries and disorders. (2)
  • Locate data in patient intake and consent for treatment forms, medical histories, laboratory test results and other entry forms. for example, they may review medical history forms to locate data on diagnoses and treatments previously provided by physicians and other health care professionals. (3)
  • Complete entry forms such as laboratory requisitions, patient assessments, clinic reports, treatment records, purchase orders, invoices and receipts. they may have to combine data from several sources to complete such forms. for example, a doctor of podiatric medicine may complete a form to prescribe a topical antibiotic for a diabetic patient suffering from a foot infection. the doctor may enter data such as the prescription date, the patient's name, address and age and the type of drug and dosage. (3)
  • Locate data in radiographs, diagnostic images, sketches and pictures. for example, a podiatrist may scan diagnostic images to locate damage to a patient's foot muscles, bones, tendons and ligaments resulting from an injury. an orthoptist may scan an ophthalmologist's sketch of a patient's eye to identify the location of hemorrhages. (3)
  • Create schedules. for example, they may create daily schedules into which their receptionists enter appointment times, locations and patients' names.
  • Create sketches to facilitate patients' understanding of diagnoses and treatments. for example, an orthoptist may create a sketch of a patient's eyes to illustrate direction of movement and alignment. a naturopath may sketch a face to indicate where acupuncture needles were placed during a patient's treatment.
 

3. 

Writing

Desired Skill Level Range: 1-5
  Other Professional Occupations in Health Diagnosing and Treating
  • Write text entries in forms and short notes for record keeping. for example, podiatrists write notes about treatment procedures in patients' records. they also enter instructions in laboratory forms when ordering orthotic devices to correct the position of patients' feet and ankles. (1)
  • Write e-mail and letters to colleagues, co-workers, patients and suppliers. for example, they may write letters to other health care professionals to transmit and request patients' records. they may also write e-mail to respond to patients' enquiries about their treatments and to question suppliers about their products and delivery schedules. (2)
  • Write procedures, instructions and recommendations for patients. they must be explicit and precise to reduce ambiguities and the possibilities of misinterpretation. for example, a naturopath may write nasal lavage procedures, alternating nostril breathing instructions and acid reflux treatment recommendations for patients. an orthoptist may write instructions for eye exercises and patching routines for patients with defective binocular vision and abnormal eye movement. a podiatrist may compose preoperative and post-operative foot surgery instructions. an osteopath may write instructions for stretching exercises to reduce back pain and improve posture. (3)
  • Write the text for brochures, leaflets and internet websites to promote approaches to health and wellness and advertise their services. they must address key questions about symptoms, diseases, disorders, deformities, injuries, prevention and treatment in an effective manner. they may have to gather, select and rewrite information from various sources for a mixed audience of patients, health care professionals and representatives from community organizations. for example, naturopaths may write about the symptoms of magnesium and vitamin deficiencies and the importance of calcium in keeping bones and teeth healthy. podiatrists in private practices may write about their clinics' expertise in treating bunions, hammer toes, plantar warts, tendonitis, corns, ingrown toenails, calluses and athlete's foot. (4)
  • May write articles and case studies for trade magazines, academic journals and conference proceedings. they may describe complex clinical conditions encountered, outline diagnostic and treatment procedures used and discuss results obtained. for example, an osteopathic doctor may write an article about a manipulative therapy used to treat patients with pneumonia. a doctor of podiatric medicine may write an article about the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot ulceration and infection and the risk of amputation. a naturopathic doctor may write an article about the diagnosis and treatment of amblyopia. (5)
 

4. 

Numeracy

Desired Skill Level Range: 1-4
  Other Professional Occupations in Health Diagnosing and Treating
  • Calculate and verify purchase order and invoice amounts. for example, naturopaths verify invoice amounts for natural supplements, minerals and vitamins purchased from suppliers. they calculate line amounts, discounts and sales taxes. (money math), (3)
  • May create work schedules for co-workers. they must take into account workload indicators and the need to distribute job tasks equitably. they may have to adjust work schedules because of vacations and sick leave. for example, a naturopathic doctor may create work schedules for a holistic health clinic employing twelve other practitioners, a receptionist, a secretary, an office administrator and a laboratory technician. (scheduling, budgeting & accounting math), (3)
  • May prepare and monitor operational budgets for their offices and clinics. health professionals in private practices have to ensure that expenditures incurred for salaries, rents, medical and office supplies, utilities, insurance, accountants, lawyers, periodicals, advertising, conferences and courses are fully covered by their budgets. they may have to change budget line items because of unexpected events. (scheduling, budgeting & accounting math), (4)
  • May calculate amounts for payroll, utility and tax accounts. for example, health professionals in private clinics may calculate payroll amounts for receptionists, secretaries, office administrators, laboratory technicians and medical assistants. they multiply hours worked by hourly wage rates, calculate and subtract deductions for federal and provincial income taxes and contributions to pension plans and employment insurance. they may have to use different hourly wage rates for overtime and work on statutory holidays. (scheduling, budgeting & accounting math), (4)
  • May prepare and verify financial statements. for example, health professionals in private practices may prepare and verify monthly balance sheets, income and expense statements and statements of cash flows. (scheduling, budgeting & accounting math), (4)
  • Measure physical properties using common measuring tools. for example, they may use scales and thermometers to measure patients' body weights and temperatures during physical examinations. naturopaths may use medicine droppers to measure drops of tinctures when preparing homeopathic remedies for patients. (measurement and calculation math), (1)
  • Take precise measurements using specialized tools. for example, an orthoptist may use a synoptophone to measure a patient's degree of visual alignment, acuity, strabismus and fusion. the orthoptist may also use a tonometer to measure hydrostatic eye pressure and track down glaucoma. a doctor of podiatric medicine may use a pedograph to measure the distribution of foot pressure and a tractograph to measure angles when assessing the range of motion in a patient's joints of the foot and ankle. (measurement and calculation math), (3)
  • Calculate volumes and concentrations for mixtures and solutions using fractions, ratios, rates and percentages. for example, a podiatrist may calculate the volume and concentration of local anaesthetic needed for a foot area being surgically treated. a naturopath may calculate the volume of water needed for an herbal remedy. (measurement and calculation math), (3)
  • Manage small inventories of medical supplies. they establish desirable inventory levels and calculate turnover rates. they count inventories and calculate quantities needed to bring inventories to desirable levels. for example, doctors of podiatric medicine manage inventories of sterilants, sterile surgery gowns, gloves, syringes, towels, drapes, skin closures, adhesive tapes, bandages, nail files, creams, blades, orthotic casting materials and other supplies. (data analysis math), (3)
  • Collect and analyse physical examination data and test results to assess patients' health, identify treatment options and monitor progress. for example, an osteopath may collect and analyse measurements of a patient's cranial wave motion, lumbo-pelvic rhythms, respiratory rhythms, range of motion and heart rate to assess overall health, develop a treatment plan and monitor progress. a naturopathic doctor may collect and analyse measurements of a patient's levels of vitamins, nutrients, minerals, enzymes, natural sugars, toxins, hormones, bacteria and viruses to determine likely causes of ailments and prescribe various natural treatments. (data analysis math), (3)
  • May collect, analyse and interpret research data on the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, deformities, injuries and disorders. for example, a podiatrist may collect, analyse and interpret data to compare the effectiveness of foot orthoses, extracorporeal shockwaves and low-dye taping for the treatment of plantar fasciitis. (data analysis math), (4)
  • Estimate times needed to perform job duties, using past experience as a guide. for example, a doctor of podiatric medicine may estimate the time required for an appointment with a patient by assessing the nature and complexity of podiatric procedures to be performed. (numerical estimation), (1)
  • Estimate times needed by patients to achieve desired treatment outcomes. they consider each patient's health history, current status and objectives to be reached. for example, a naturopathic doctor may estimate the time required for a patient to gain health benefits from a new dietary treatment plan. (numerical estimation), (2)
 

5. 

Oral Communication

Desired Skill Level Range: 2-4
  Note: This is an important skill
  Other Professional Occupations in Health Diagnosing and Treating
  • Give directions to co-workers and colleagues and discuss ongoing job tasks with them. for example, an osteopath may give instructions to a secretary about the scheduling of follow-up appointments with a patient. a doctor of podiatric medicine may discuss the next surgical procedure with a medical assistant and provide directions about tasks such as taking x-rays and changing patients' bandages. (2)
  • Negotiate prices and coordinate deliveries of products and equipment with suppliers. for example, naturopaths may negotiate the prices of vitamins, herbal supplements and other natural products with sales representatives. podiatrists may coordinate the deliveries of podiatric chairs, exam tables, directional lamps, sterilizers, x-ray units, tractographs and pedographs with medical equipment suppliers. (2)
  • Discuss patients' conditions, diagnoses and treatments with other health care professionals. for example, a podiatrist may discuss a patient's health history, diabetes and treatment plan with the referring family physician. a naturopath may consult herbalists about dietary changes to control a patient's irritated bowel. an orthoptist may speak to an ophthalmologist to discuss a patient's eye test results, strabismus and amblyopia and the need for corrective surgery. (3)
  • Interact with patients and their relatives. they establish trust and interview patients and their families to collect and clarify information about physical, emotional and mental health. they listen to descriptions of symptoms and provide reassurance. they explain diagnoses and discuss the pros and cons of various treatment approaches. they answer questions about treatment procedures and alleviate concerns. they also educate patients on special care, exercises, diet, hygiene and other measures and refer them to other health care professionals when needed. (3)
  • Lead meetings with co-workers and discuss appointment schedules, invoicing procedures, office administration, equipment needs and other matters affecting their work. at these meetings, they may teach procedures and techniques they have developed and demonstrate how to operate new equipment. for example, an orthoptist may teach the proper operation of an exophthalmometer to ophthalmology technicians at an eye clinic. a naturopath may demonstrate a new technique for the treatment of acid reflux to co-workers at a wellness centre. (3)
  • Make presentations to colleagues and community groups. they may need to adapt presentation style and language for people who are unfamiliar with the topics presented. for example, an osteopath may deliver a presentation about individual differences in response to spinal manipulation therapy at a symposium organized by a professional association. an orthoptist may speak to a group of pre-medical ophthalmology students about the relation between blindness in adults and glaucoma, cataract and diabetic retinopathy. a podiatrist may talk to community groups about the prevention and treatment of common foot disorders. (4)
 

6. 

Problem Solving

Desired Skill Level Range: 2-3
  Other Professional Occupations in Health Diagnosing and Treating
  • Find that some patients miss appointments and others arrive late. they diplomatically remind such patients that they have busy schedules and cannot afford late arrivals and no-shows. they may also charge patients for missed appointments. (2)
  • Face suppliers' delays which may adversely affect treatment plans and appointment schedules. for example, podiatrists may face delays because the orthotic laboratories are missing technicians and unable to process orders. they contact the laboratories to confirm delay times and locate other laboratories to fabricate foot orthoses in the interim. (2)
  • Encounter patients who are difficult to treat. for example, orthoptists often work with children who are scared of keratometers, ophthalmometers, exophthalmometers, phoropters and other optical measurement instruments. they reassure the children with their voices, body gestures and facial expressions and perform the necessary procedures as quickly as possible. they may also reward good behaviour afterwards with small toys. naturopaths experience difficulties in getting some patients to adhere to specific regimens of dietary monitoring and supplement intake. they try different approaches in order to motivate patients to conform to prescribed regimens. if they fail in their attempts, they may recommend other treatment options for the patients. (3)
 

7. 

Decision Making

Desired Skill Level Range: 2-3
  Other Professional Occupations in Health Diagnosing and Treating
  • Select workers for jobs such as receptionists, secretaries, office administrators, laboratory technicians and medical assistants. they consider individual academic backgrounds, skills, experiences, strengths, weaknesses and availabilities. (2)
  • Select suppliers for specific products, materials and equipment. they take into account factors such as quality, specifications, prices and promised delivery dates. for example, naturopaths select natural product suppliers for vitamins and herbal supplements. podiatrists select orthotic laboratories for foot orthoses and medical equipment suppliers for podiatric chairs, exam tables, directional lamps, sterilizers, x-ray units, tractographs and pedographs. (2)
  • Select the health care professionals to whom they refer patients when diagnoses and treatments needed are beyond their competencies. for example, an osteopath may refer a patient presenting life-threatening neurological symptoms to the patient's family physician. a naturopath may refer a patient with a severe back problem to a trusted chiropractor. an orthoptist may refer a patient whose left eye presents a tumour to a particular ocular oncologist who is more suitably trained to diagnose and treat eye cancers. (3)
 

8. 

Job Task Planning

Desired Skill Level Range: 3
  Own job planning and organizing
  • Professionals in other health diagnosing and treating occupations plan and organize job tasks to meet the treatment needs of their patients. they set priorities and provide input into the day-to-day scheduling of patients' visits although their actual appointments are often booked by their secretaries. appointment cancellations, suppliers' delays, emergencies and other unexpected events force them to frequently reorganize job tasks.
Planning and organizing for others
  • Professionals in other health diagnosing and treating occupations play a central role in organizing, planning and scheduling health services and contribute to long-term and strategic planning for their organizations. they may be responsible for assigning tasks to receptionists, secretaries, office administrators, laboratory technicians, medical assistants and other workers.
 

9. 

Finding Information

Desired Skill Level Range: 2-4
  Other Professional Occupations in Health Diagnosing and Treating
  • Find information on patients' health by interviewing them, consulting referring health care professionals and searching medical history forms and treatment records. (2)
  • Find information on available conferences, seminars, symposia, workshops and courses relevant to their specialization areas by consulting colleagues, searching trade magazines and newsletters, contacting professional societies, private training organizations and universities and searching their websites. (3)
  • Find information about the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, deformities, injuries and disorders with which they are not familiar by consulting colleagues and searching sources such as textbooks, trade publications, academic journals and the internet. (3)
  • Find specific information on products, materials and equipment used in their fields of practice by consulting a wide range of sources. for example, doctors of podiatric medicine may find detailed information about drug products such as optimal dosages, indications, potential interactions, physiochemical characteristics, mechanisms of action and side and adverse effects by referring to labels and package inserts, consulting pharmacists and searching the compendium of pharmaceuticals and specialties. they need to analyse this information so that they can prescribe appropriate medications to patients. (4)
 

10. 

Computer Use

Desired Skill Level Range: 2-4
  Other Professional Occupations in Health Diagnosing and Treating
  • Use word processing. for example, they write and edit text for letters, procedures, instructions, promotional materials, case study reports and journal articles using word processing programs such as word. they generally use basic page and character formatting features. (2)
  • May use graphics software. for example, they may create slide shows using presentation software such as powerpoint. in order to develop effective presentations for patients, colleagues and community groups, they may import scanned images. (2)
  • May use databases. for example, naturopaths may use homeopathic databases such as radar, encyclopaedia homeopathica, macrepertory and referenceworks to search, display and print data on symptoms and treatment approaches. doctors of podiatric medicine and orthoptists may use the medline database to retrieve and print medical articles. (2)
  • Use communications software. for example, they use e-mail programs such as outlook and eudora to exchange e-mail and attachments with co-workers, colleagues, suppliers and patients. (2)
  • Use the internet. for example, they use internet browsers such as explorer and firefox to obtain information about particular health conditions, treatments, equipment and suppliers. they also use these browsers to access professional associations' websites and on-line journals and participate in discussion forums. (2)
  • May use other computer and software applications. for example, private practitioners may assess their needs and select health care office management software from companies such as medical software canada, focus multisystèmes and ctrl informatique. using such software, they may create patients' files, schedule patients, control inventories and track financial accounts. they may also participate in configuring software and training co-workers who will be using it. (4)
 

11. 

Critical Thinking

Desired Skill Level Range: 2-3
  Note: This is an important skill
  Other Professional Occupations in Health Diagnosing and Treating
  • Evaluate the performance of workers such as receptionists, secretaries, office administrators, laboratory technicians and medical assistants. as part of these assessments, they determine the extent to which workers have met expectations and adhered to established rules, procedures and schedules. they may recommend further training, increased supervision, promotions and job task reassignments at the conclusion of performance evaluations. (2)
  • Evaluate their patients' health. they review patients' medical history forms, referral letters and treatment records. they clarify information about patients' physical, emotional and mental conditions by interviewing them. they may conduct physical exams, take x-rays and diagnostic images, order laboratory tests and interpret results. as a consequence of these evaluations, they may diagnose diseases, deformities, injuries and disorders and recommend treatment plans. (3)
  • Assess the effectiveness of procedures used to treat patients' conditions. they schedule regular visits with patients during and after treatments to monitor the evolution of symptoms and ensure there are no relapses. for example, doctors of podiatric medicine assess the effectiveness of braces, casts, shields, orthotic devices, physical therapy, medications and surgery to treat specific diseases, deformities and injuries of the human foot. (3)
  • Assess the appropriateness of software for particular applications. they identify performance criteria such as speed, flexibility and compatibility with current equipment. they gather and analyze specifications and expert opinions. for example, naturopaths may assess the appropriateness of homeopathic databases to search data on symptoms and treatment approaches. podiatrists may assess the appropriateness of health care office management software to create patients' files, schedule patients, control inventories and track financial accounts for their clinics. (3)
 

12. 

Use of Memory

Desired Skill Level Range: N/A
  Other Professional Occupations in Health Diagnosing and Treating
  • Remember patients' names and details about their lives, diagnoses and treatments to save time, facilitate communication and show genuine interest.
  • Remember procedures performed during the day, specific problems encountered and recommendations discussed to complete patients' records at the end of the day.
 

13. 

Working with Others

Desired Skill Level Range: 3
  Professionals in other health diagnosing and treating occupations coordinate and integrate job tasks with other health care professionals. they may direct, lead, supervise and train receptionists, secretaries, office administrators, laboratory technicians, medical assistants and other staff to ensure the quality, efficiency and effectiveness of health services. they also coordinate their own work with that of family physicians, specialist physicians and other health care professionals to treat patients' diseases, deformities, injuries and disorders.
 

14. 

Continuous Learning

Desired Skill Level Range: 4
  Note: This is an important skill
  Continuous learning is an integral part of the job for professionals in other health diagnosing and treating occupations. They are expected to stay abreast of new diagnosis and treatment procedures, legislative changes and technological advances in their fields of practice. They acquire new learning by speaking with co-workers and colleagues, browsing the Internet and reading extensively. They also attend conferences, seminars, symposia, workshops and courses offered by professional societies, private training organizations and universities on topics relevant to their specializations. These professionals may be required by provincial regulatory bodies to develop their own learning plans and engage in continuous learning to maintain their professional certification.
 

15. 

Other Information

Desired Skill Level Range: N/A
  Physical Aspects
  • Professionals in other health diagnosing and treating occupations are required to walk, sit, stand, bend and stoop. they walk between examination rooms in their offices to meet patients. they sit, stand, bend and stoop over patients while performing examinations and treatments. they move into different body angles to facilitate viewing the areas of the bodies being examined and treated. professionals in this unit group use hand-eye coordination, multiple limb coordination and manual dexterity to perform examinations and treatments. they may also need fine motor skills to operate hand tools such as needles, scalpels, scissors, forceps, clamps and drills. these professionals generally use limited to medium strength to perform their tasks. heavy strength may be required to transfer patients from wheelchairs to examination tables and to manipulate patients' limbs. professionals in other health diagnosing and treating occupations are required to have enhanced tactile sensory and proprioceptive skills to diagnose diseases, deformities and injuries and treat patients. they also need good visual abilities to evaluate range of motion and asymmetry.
Attitudes
  • Professionals in other health diagnosing and treating occupations must possess integrity, honesty and compassion. they must be curious and dedicated to finding the causes of diseases, deformities and disorders. they must have a genuine interest in helping patients and be respectful, patient, empathetic and calm.
Future Trends Affecting Essential Skills
  • In the future, professionals in other health diagnosing and treating occupations will need improved essential skills to cope with technological, medical and regulatory changes. the constant development of new technologies and techniques to aid in the assessment and treatment of diseases and injuries will demand that they continue to develop their ability to find information, especially over the internet. evaluating these new technologies and techniques will require good reading skills and the ability to think critically. moreover, regulatory changes at the provincial level may affect the scope of practice and increase continuous learning requirements for some of these professionals.
 

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